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Male hypogonadism

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Male hypogonadism

Male hypogonadism is a disorder that is characterized by deficiency of testosterone activity in the body. The primary hypogonadism is usually due to the deficiency of testosterone or due to desensitization of hormones at the level of receptors. Depending on the type of hypogonadism and age at onset, patients may experience a variety of symptoms.

Symptoms of Male Hypogonadism

The symptoms of male hypogonadism or testosterone deficiency can be classified into three phases; during fetal development or before or after puberty. Following are the most common symptoms:

Testosterone levels declines gradually with advancing age (especially after 30 years of age). Some common manifestations of male hypogonadism during adulthood are:

Causes of Male Hypogonadism

It is the failure of testes to produce testosterone; thereby causing primary male hypogonadism. Classic causes include:

It is the failure of pituitary gland and hypothalamus to induce testosterone production. Common causes include:

Complications of Male Hypogonadism

If the hypogonadism is left untreated, following complications may occur:

Fetal development:




Treatment modalities depends largely on the age of onset, severity of testosterone deficiency and cause of hypogonadism.

Treatment for adults:

Treatment for boys:

Types of Testosterone replacement include:

Oral therapy is not recommended because most oral formulations can cause liver damage. If appropriate doses are not administered, the risk of complications increases; such as cause heart attack, prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic cancer enlargement, enlarges breasts, sleep apnea and coagulation disorders.


1. Dohle, G. R., Arver, S., Bettocchi, C., Kliesch, S., Punab, M., & De Ronde, W. (2012). Guidelines on male hypogonadism. European Association of Urology.

2. Ahmad, A. E., Lao, M., Mechlin, C. W., Forman, M., Horvath, P. M., & McCullough, A. R. (2013). Prevalence of male hypogonadism in couples presenting to a reproductive endocrinology infertility clinic. Fertility and Sterility, 100(3), S211.

3. Zarotsky, V., Huang, M. Y., Carman, W., Morgentaler, A., Singhal, P. K., Coffin, D., & Jones, T. H. (2014). Systematic literature review of the epidemiology of nongenetic forms of hypogonadism in adult males. Journal of Hormones, 2014.

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